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Crystal Contreras

2004 Research

Abstract: Literature Review of Female Sexual Perpetrators: Characteristics and Treatment

Mentor:Dr. Kayleen Islam-Zwart, Psychology

Scientific research on female sexual perpetrators is limited. Only a few studies directed specifically to female offenders exist. Statistics imply that sexual abuse by female does not usually occur, but psychologists who have been studying this area disagree with those statistics. Reasons for the denial of female sexual abuse include factors such as cases being under-reported and society failing to recognize female perpetrators. Up to this point, the most amount of significant scholarly work has directed its attention to the characteristic of female sexual perpetrators. Psychologists who work with female sexual perpetrators have grouped female sexual offenders into categories based on similarities. Five major categories are presented in the literature. Further review of the literature was conducted to determine the different types of gender-specific treatment approaches for female perpetrators; however, empirical studies on treatment approaches were very difficult to identify. Specifically on empirical studies, only three were found. This paper reviews the characteristics and treatment of female sexual perpetrators.

2003 Research

Abstract: Will gratitude increase after Recalling Redemptive Memories?

Mentor: Dr. Philip Watkins, Psychology

The purpose the present study is to determine the effect of redemptive memories on trait gratitude. A redemptive memory is simply a negative event that was transformed into a positive event. In addition, trait gratitude is the tendency to be or have gratuitous qualities. Participants in the study were given GRAT, and assessment tool used to measure gratitude, then they were assigned to one of the three conditions (positive, redemptive, and neutral) for memory recollection. Following the memory recollection task subjects were administered the GRAT for the second time. Results suggested a relative increase between redemptive memories and trait gratitude, but due to the low number of participants there were some ambiguities as to the cause of the increase on the GRAT. Specific results and future directions will be discussed in greater detail.


12th McNair WI Conference & Graduate Fair 11/7-9/2003

7th Annual Resrch & CW Symposium, EWU, May 19, 2004

WA State Psychological Conference/Seattle: Oct. 1-3, 2004

Western Psychological Association Conference, Portland, 4/14-17/2005 (not McNair $)

8th Annual Resrch & CW Symposium, EWU, May 18, 2005

American Psychology and Law Society Annual Conferene, La Jolla, 3/2005

Amer Psych and Law Society Annual Conference, St. Petersbirg, 3/2006

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